It’s an intangible concept, wellbeing… it carries with it notions of happiness or comfort and research in this area is the sort of thing that makes people roll their eyes and lament what rubbish academia is all about. However, if my research is connected to wellbeing, I need to have some kind of clarity about the term. What I am discovering is that no-one can decide (Dodge et al, 2012; Statham and Chase, 2010; Pollard and Lee, 2003) – even about its grammatical construction… hyphen, no hyphen? This uncertainty is hardly helping my sense of well, you know…
Governmental organisations – and not just in the UK – have expressed the need to focus on wellbeing. Were you aware that it was nearly a decade ago, that David Cameron (2006) gave a speech about his commitment – not to GDP, but GWB – the general wellbeing of the people? (Hmmm, yes, quite). Perhaps it is inevitable that the terms set out here are related to economics and managing austerity:
“wellbeing evidence can not only help target public spending more effectively at improving people’s lives, but in many cases has the potential to deliver significant long-term savings by reducing demand on public services” (Berry, 2014, p.1)
Wellbeing in the 2014 all-party parliamentary report is posited as an outcome of something financial – a benefit that goes hand-in-hand with a comfortable income and purposeful employment, perhaps as one of the Wellbeing Analysts recommended (ibid., p.3) for each governmental department. Apologies, my left-leaning petticoat is showing…
Let’s return to potentially safer ground and think about Ancient Greeks for a bit. Epicurus was the chap who wrote first on hedonia – the reduction of pain and prioritisation of happiness or pleasure, although not necessarily the wild and indulgent behaviour, disregarding of others, which we have been led to understand by this term. Aristotle appeared more focused on eudaimonia, where complex ideas about fulfillment through practical, rational actions such as supporting friendships perhaps reflect the more nuanced ways we may now perceive wellbeing (Waterman, 1993).
The tensions between these ideas have given rise to some complex and confusing descriptions of what wellbeing may be. Dodge et al (2012) provide a really useful overview of these debates… is wellbeing a satisfaction with – or quality of – life, the fulfilment of goals, an absence of illness or a sense of ‘normality’? The definitions become distorted as we grapple with questions of whose perspective? whose values? Seligman (2011) tried to draw these nuances together in exploring elements such as engagement with others and finding accomplishment in one’s actions, which may not generate ‘happiness’, but are nevertheless important if one is to flourish. Dodge et al,(2012), in attempting to pin down a formula for measuring a closely defined definition of wellbeing, suggest that the key is an equilibrium or balance between one’s psychological, social and physical resources in the face of challenge.
The World Health Organisation (2014) has focused particularly on mental health wellbeing – a state in which ‘every individual realises his or her potential, can cope with the daily stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully and is able to make a contribution to her or his community.’ Some elements here are problematic: We are not necessarily talented at recognising our own ‘potential’ or the steps we take towards it (and are we ever ‘done’ with reaching it?) Coping with ‘ordinary’ stresses is also complex – for some, their ‘everyday’ would floor most of us – caring for a parent with Alzheimer’s, pressing on with life after a cancer diagnosis or parenting in poverty. For others, this may mean the courage to simply step outside one’s front door, managing the impact of unseen illness. Often, working ‘productively’ in a community is an aspect significantly tied to economics and the world of employment and those struggling to find or keep work may feel they therefore do not contribute. It may take the perspective of a friend or colleague to help us appreciate the contribution we do make – the kind word, the act of generosity, the offer of time to listen.
I am rather partial to the interpretations of wellbeing proffered by the New Economics Foundation (NEF). In contrast to the organisational name, elements to support wellbeing appear more to do with one’s spirit than finance or employed work – including the need to Connect and enrich one’s experience through social relations, Be Active in anything from walking to dancing, Take Notice, catching sight of the beautiful, Keep Learning, to increase competency, sociality and self-esteem and to Give, sharing in mutual reciprocity (Thompson and Aked, 2011). This is not merely fluffy idealism. Wellbeing does have something to do with reflective mindfulness and may not be entirely to do with being ‘happy’ – although anecdotally it probably helps. Michaelson et al (2009), also writing for NEF, focus on a dynamic approach to maintaining a sense of wellbeing and capacity for resilience through being vitally engaged in activities which make us feel competent.
What this has to do with knit and crochet needs to be explored in more detail for a post over on Recovered Threads, especially as in June I am hosting some ‘sit and stitch’ workshops for the LAHF / RSPH Creativity and Wellbeing Plus Week at Sheffield Hallam University and online… I’ll put a link here when it’s written. If you are around for the workshops – digitally or physically, come and join the conversation.
Berry, Christine (2014) Wellbeing in Four Policy areas. Available at: http://b.3cdn.net/nefoundation/ccdf9782b6d8700f7c_lcm6i2ed7.pdf
Cameron, David (2006) Speech to Google Zeitgeist Europe. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2006/may/22/conservatives.davidcameron
Dodge, Rachel; Daly, Annette, P.; Huyton, Jan and Sanders, Lalage, D. (2012) The Challenge of Defining Wellbeing. International Journal of Wellbeing 2 (3), pp.222-235.
Michaelson, Juliet; Abdallah, Saamah; Steuer, Nicola; Thompson, Sam and Marks, Nic (2009) National Accounts of Well-being: bringing real wealth onto the balance sheet. Available at: http://www.nationalaccountsofwellbeing.org/public-data/files/national-accounts-of-well-being-report.pdf
Pollard, Elizabeth, and Lee, Patrice (2003) Child Well-being:a systematic review of the literature. Social Indicators Research 61 (1) pp.9-78.
Seligman, Martin (2011) Flourish – A new understanding of happiness and well-being – and how to achieve them. London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing.
Statham, June and Chase, Elaine (2010) Childhood Wellbeing: a brief overview. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/183197/Child-Wellbeing-Brief.pdf
Thompson, Sam and Aked, Jody (2011) Five Ways to Wellbeing: New applications, new ways of thinking. Available at: http://www.neweconomics.org/publications/entry/five-ways-to-well-being-new-applications-new-ways-of-thinking
Waterman, Alan S. (1993) Two conceptions of happiness: Contrasts of personal expressiveness (eudaimonia) and hedonic enjoyment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 64 (4) pp.768-691.
World Health Organisation (2014) Mental health: a state of wellbeing. Available at: http://www.who.int/features/factfiles/mental_health/en/